Barlow, K., Tiger, J., Slocum, S. & Miller, S. (2013). Comparing acquisition of exchange‐based and signed mands with children with autism.

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 29, 59-69.
Abstract: Therapists and educators frequently teach alternative‐communication systems, such as picture exchanges or manual signs, to individuals with developmental disabilities who present with expressive language deficits. Michael (1985) recommended a taxonomy for alternative communication systems that differentiated between selection‐based systems in which each response is topographically identical (e.g., card selection and exchange systems) and topography‐based systems in which each response is topographically distinct (e.g., signed language). We compared the efficiency of training picture exchanges and signs with 3 participants who presented with severe language deficits; all participants acquired the picture‐exchange responses more readily.

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